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What Is Food Fermentation? (Definition And Processes Of Fermentation)

Fermented foods may be defined as those foods, which have been subjected to the actions of microorganisms or enzymes so that desirable biochemical changes cause significant modification to the food.
By fermentation, food may be made more digestible, nutritious and safer or have better flavour.
The class of fermented food produced in different regions of the world reflect the diet of that region and also the available raw material.

What are the reasons for fermenting foods?(1) Improvement of digestibility: Digestibility, which is measured through different parameters, is generally improved through fermentation.
The enzymes of the fermenting microorganism hydrolyze the complex constituents of the starting material.
(2) Fermentation almost invariably adds flavour to the food: In some cases, the flavour of a partial product is improved directly.
In some other cases, they can be used to make tasty food from different plant product.
(3) To improve the appearance of food: food like Angkak (oriented…

Factors Affecting Microbial Growth In Food

The addition of microorganisms into food under favorable conditions allows the organisms to multiply and pass through succession of phases, and a growth curve is obtained as shown below:

The microbial growth curve involves seven distinct phases.
The initial phase called the lag phase (A-B) is a period of no growth or even a decline in number, although they may increase in size and show marked metabolic activity.
The phase of positive acceleration (B-C) shows that the growth rate is continuously increasing and leads to the logarithmic or exponential phase of growth (C-D).
Here the growth is most rapid and constant and with time leads to the phase of negative acceleration (D-E) during which the rate of multiplication is decreasing.
This phase is followed by the maximal stationary phase (E-F) where the microbial numbers remain constant.
The section F-G is the accelerated death phase followed by death phase or phase of decline (G-H) during which numbers decrease at a faster rate than new cells …